Go

How CUE integrates with the Go Programming Language.

CUE is not specific to Go, or to cloud applications, but like many of new cloud technologies, CUE is written in Go. It has a rich set of APIs available to Go developers and interacts with CUE in various ways.

The CUE APIs

The CUE APIs in the main repo are organized as follows:

  • cmd: The CUE command line tool.
  • cue: core APIs related to parsing, formatting, loading and running CUE programs. These packages are used by all other packages, including the command line tool.
  • doc: CUE documentation, including tutorials and the reference manual.
  • encoding: Packages for converting to and from CUE, including adaptors for YAML, JSON, Go, Protobuf, and OpenAPI.
  • pkg: Builtin packages that are available from within CUE programs. These are typically not used in Go code.

Extract CUE from Go

Download CUE definitions from Go packages

Many of today’s cloud-related projects are written in Go. The cue get go fetches Go packages using Go’s package manager and makes their definitions available through the CUE module’s pkg directory using the same package naming conventions as in Go.

For example, to download the CUE defintions for the core Kubernetes types, run

cue get go k8s.io/api/core/v1

From the root of your CUE module, you will now see ./pkg/k8s.io/api/core populated with the extracted CUE definitions. Projects, like Kubernetes, do not have to support such conversions. CUE derives the interpretation by analyzing how the Go types convert with the encoding/json.

The generated package can be used in CUE using the same import path. In this CUE file, we import the generated definitions and specify that all services in our configuration are of type v1.Service.

import "k8s.io/api/core/v1"

services <Name>: v1.Service

You can download definitions from any Go project like this. For example, try k8s.io/api/extensions/v1beta1 or github.com/prometheus/prometheus/pkg/rulefmt.

Processing CUE in Go

Load CUE into Go

There are two primary ways to load CUE into Go. To load entire packages, consistent with the cue tool, use the cuelang.org/go/cue/load package. To load CUE parse trees or raw CUE text, use a cuelang.org/go/cue.Runtime.

The following code loads an embedded CUE configuration, evaluates one of its fields, and prints the result.

const config = `
msg:   "Hello \(place)!"
place: string | *"world" // "world" is the default.
`

var r cue.Runtime

instance, _ := r.Compile("test", config)

str, _ := instance.Lookup("msg").String()

fmt.Println(str)

// Output:
// Hello world!

The names passed to Compile get recorded as references in token positions.

Validate Go values

The Codec type in package cuelang.org/go/encoding/gocode/gocodec provides the Validate method for validating Go values.

var codec = gocodec.New(r, nil)
var myValueConstraints cue.Value

func (x *MyValue) Validate() error {
    return codec.Validate(myValueConstraints, x)
}

Package cuelang.org/go/encoding/gocode, discussed below, can generate these kind of stubs to make life a bit easier.

Complete Go values

A gocodec.Codec also defines a Complete method, which is similar to Validate, but fills in missing values if these can be derived from the CUE definitions.

Combine CUE values

The cue.Value’s Unify method can be used to merge two values. It is the programmatic equivalent of the & operation in the CUE language.

With Unify one can combine constraints from multiple sources programmatically. For instance, one could add some context-dependent policy constraints to a set of base constraints.

Copy CUE values into Go values

The simplest way to set a Go value to the contents of a CUE value is to use the Decode method of the later.

type ab struct { A, B int }

var r cue.Runtime

var x ab

i, _ := r.Compile("test", `{A: 2, B: 4}`)
_ = i.Value().Decode(&x)
fmt.Println(x)

i, _ = r.Compile("test", `{B: "foo"}`)
_ = i.Value().Decode(&x)
fmt.Println(x)

// Output:
// {2 4}
// json: cannot unmarshal string into Go struct field ab.B of type int

Package cuelang.com/go/encoding/gocode/gocodec gives a bit more control over encoding and allows incorporating Go field tags with constraints as well as deriving unspecified values from constraints.

Modify CUE values

A field in a CUE instance can be set to a Go value that conforms to the constraints of this instance using the Fill method. Building on the example of the “Load CUE into GO” section, we can write

inst, _ := instance.Fill("you", "place")
str, _ = inst.Lookup("msg").String()

fmt.Println(str)

// Output:
// Hello you!

To ensure the integrity of references with the CUE instance, modifications are only allowed at the whole-instance level.

Generate Go code

Programmatically

The Generate function in package cuelang.org/go/encoding/gocode generates stubs for validation functions and method from a given CUE instance. It does so by lining up the top-level CUE names with Go definitions. The CUE code can use field tags, similar to those used in Go, to override the naming.

b, err := Generate("path/to/go/pkg", instance, nil)
if err != nil {
    // handle error
}

err = ioutil.WriteFile("cue_gen.go", b, 0644)
Last modified August 27, 2019: Fix some broken links (bff7580)